US officials have now said the operation, which involved a missile launched from a drone, targeted a suicide bomber in a vehicle who was aiming to carry out an attack at Kabul airport.
"We are confident we hit the target we were aiming for," a military official told the BBC's US partner network CBS.
"Initial reports indicate there were no civilian casualties," the official said, adding: "Secondary explosions from the vehicle indicated the presence of a substantial amount of explosive material."
A spokesman for the Taliban also said the US airstrike had targeted a suspected bomber travelling in a car, according to the Associated Press.
It comes after witnesses reported a rocket strike near the airport, although it is not clear if the two incidents are connected.
A bombing at Kabul airport last Thursday killed as many as 170 people, including 13 US troops.