Emergency crews were called to several consulates on Wednesday after being alerted by staff. Some packages were reported to be labelled asbestos.
The contents of the parcels are still being identified. There were no reports of harm to staff.
The man arrested sent 38 parcels, the Australian Federal Police (AFP) allege.
There was no ongoing threat to the public, authorities said.
The 48-year-old man was charged with sending dangerous articles to be carried by a postal service, an offence which carries a maximum 10-year jail term.
Emergency workers had been seen at consulates belonging to the UK, US, Switzerland, Pakistan, India, Greece, South Korea, New Zealand, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and France, Australian media reported.