Weighing about 5,854kg (12,906lb), the GSAT-11 is India's "most-advanced" multi-band communication satellite.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) launched the satellite from the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana early on Wednesday morning.
It will be placed in a geostationary orbit by the end of this month and its transponders will be switched on.
Isro chief K Sivan told reporters that the satellite will "play a vital role in providing broadband services across the country".
Scientists say it will provide internet access to "off-grid" remote areas in India - hills and islands, for example - where traditional fixed-line broadband services are not available and would be helpful during emergencies and disaster relief. And it will also help provide internet connectivity during air travel in India.