It is expected to fetch between $700,000 and $1m (£520,000-£765,000) at auction in New York.
Pierre de Coubertin argued that athletic endeavours could benefit individuals and society at large.
In 1894 he co-founded the International Olympic Committee and in 1896 the first modern Games were held in Athens.
The handwritten manuscript has never previously been shown in public, although a high-quality copy was exhibited in Copenhagen during the 2009 Olympic Congress.
In the 14-page speech, written in French, Mr De Coubertin says athletic pursuits should no longer be restricted to military training.
The pages also feature scribbled notes, crossings out and revisions as Mr De Coubertin honed his final version. He delivered the speech at the Sorbonne University in Paris at an event marking the fifth anniversary of the French Athletics Association.